Proposal preview

Historical Demography: Migration in Early Modern Society

Economic and social historians have discussed many aspects of migration in an early modern setting. Migrating people, by transmitting their culture, skills and sometimes even epidemics to others, exerted a considerable impact on resident populations. Migration also played an important role in the evolution of market economy – not only markets for goods but for services as well. With the evolution of markets for services, or labour markets, more people were on the move. With the expansion of goods markets, merchants also travelled back and forth between villages, and between villages and towns. The dominant move was from villages to towns and cities as labour demands were concentrated in towns/cities. If one had no means of subsistence, he or she is very much likely to have headed for the nearby urban centre. Especially when a serious famine hit the area, a large number of people left the village.
Such importance has been well recognized by historical demographers, migration has been a difficult issue since information about who migrated, and in what circumstances, is difficult to obtain from records of events such as parish registers. In contrast, from listings of residents, if they were taken repeatedly, information is readily available concerning who migrated where, and in what household circumstances. In this respect, Japanese ninbetsu aratame chō (NAC) or shūmon aratame chō (SAC) are excellent sources for migration since they were taken annually. Japanese participants of this panel will make full use of this type of data in order to unveil types of migration as well as movements of people in an early modern setting. To map the distance and routes the people travelled, the scholars also employ the technique of geographical information system (GIS). The first important point of this panel is therefore to visualize and explore the migration routes to the town in question. Also explored is push and pull factors in the town-ward movements. Secondly, the exploration will be made over a long period – from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Circumstances surrounding the migrants changed substantially; especially the volume as well as the destination of migration varied from time period to time period. In doing research of this kind, thirdly, hints and clues for other types of migration research will be sought for. Finally, attempts will be made to place findings from such Japanese migration studies in comparative perspective.
The first paper deals mainly with female labour migration by focusing on one post town and surrounding villages in Nihonmatsu domain, part of today’s Fukushima prefecture. The post town attracted migrants for work not only from surrounding villages but from other provinces such as Echigo, present-day Niigata prefecture.
The next paper looks at this Echigo region. There, being a snow country, males’ winter-time migration had already been established. For example, many went to saké brewing districts, Aizu, western part of today’s Fukushima prefecture. Such seasonal labour migration must have led to an emergence of inter-provincial people’s network.
The third paper turns to Kyoto, a metropolitan city. By using township NAC/SACs, this paper examines if there existed any differences between natives and non-natives (the latter category includes Kyoto-born as well as rural-born in-migrants).
The fourth and fifth papers are about migration of India in pre-modern society. We want to compare East Asia to South Asia.
The first paper of the second half is about female migration in seventeenth-eighteenth Italy, i.e. Turin and Piedmont. Attempt will be made to identify both similarities and differences between the two.
Next paper is about urban migration in Seventeenth-century Sweden. There were small cities in 17th century Sweden and population records are available. Gender viewpoint is also introduced.
The final paper is urban migration of 16th to 18th century Poland. Here also the importance of small cities is emphasized.
Thus, it is hoped that by bringing female-focused, household-level data using papers on both Japanese and European communities together, new frontiers of migration studies will be explored.

Organizer(s)

  • Miyuki Takahashi Rissho University miyu-tak@ris.ac.jp Japan
  • Mary L. Nagata Francis Marion University MNagata@FMARION.EDU U.S.

Session members

  • Miyuki Takahashi, Rissho University
  • Satomi Kurosu, Reitaku University
  • Atsushi Nagaoka, Reitaku University
  • Tingting, Zhang, Tohoku University
  • Mary L. Nagata, Francis Marion University
  • Swarupa Shankar, University of Hyderabad
  • Ruquia Hussain, Aligarh Muslim University
  • Beatrice Zucca, University of Cambridge
  • Martin Andersson, Sodertorn University
  • Mateusz Wyzga, Pedagogical University

Discussant(s)

  • Amy L. Erickson University of Cambridge ale25@cam.ac.uk
  • Chiaki Yamamoto Osaka University cy@econ.osaka-u.ac.jp

Papers

Panel abstract

Migrating people, by transmitting their culture, skills and even epidemics to others, exerted a considerable impact on resident populations. Such importance has been well recognized by historical demographers, migration has been a difficult issue since information about who migrated, and in what circumstances, is difficult to obtain from parish registers. In contrast, from listings of residents, information is readily available concerning who migrated where, and in what household circumstances. We use such records. Japanese participants employ the technique of GIS. The first important point of this panel is comparing pre-modern migration of Japan, India, Italy, Sweden and Poland. Secondly, we visualize and explore the migration routes to the town in question. Thirdly, the exploration will be made over a long period – from the 17th to the 19th century. Fourthly, we pay attention to gender difference . Thus, it is hoped that new frontiers of migration studies will be explored.

1st half

Female Labour Migration in 18-19th Japan: Who Came to Local Post Town Koriyama and Why?

Miyuki Takahashi,Satomi Kurosu,Atsushi Nagaoka

This paper addresses the relationship between female migration patterns and local economic condition. Our main sources are census type records of one post town and two villages in northeastern Japan in early 18th to 19th centuries. First, we compare the migration patterns of the town and villages. Next, we look at long-distance migrations from northwest to northeast Japan. We use GIS to examine spatial patterns of migration. The post town called many immigrants from remote areas much more so than the two villages did. Two different markets for living-in servant were identified in the post town: a market for both men and women of wide age range from nearby villages; and another, unique to the post town, for young women from other domains as prostitutes. The latter market had grown as the traffic of people increased.

This paper addresses the relationship between female migration patterns and local economic condition. Our main sources are census type records of one post town and two villages in northeastern Japan in early 18th to 19th centuries. First, we compare the migration patterns of the town and villages. Next, we look at long-distance migrations from northwest to northeast Japan. We use GIS to examine spatial patterns of migration. The post town called many immigrants from remote areas much more so than the two villages did. Two different markets for living-in servant were identified in the post town: a market for both men and women of wide age range from nearby villages; and another, unique to the post town, for young women from other domains as prostitutes. The latter market had grown as the traffic of people increased.

The Historical Character of Male Labour Migration in Tokugawa Japan: a case study based on the demographic analysis of Kakudahama Village in Echigo Area

Tingting Zhang

During Tokugawa period labour migration has largely been treated by economic historians as an employment issue or, by historical demographers, as a form of population movement (which usually causes a population decline in the mother village). This paper clarifies the demographic movements and family circumstances behind the migration of labour, and the logic and historical characteristics of labour migration, based on case examples of the migrant workforce of the Kakudahama village in the Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture. This migrant workforce was actively engaged in the so-called “Tasyokasegi (earnings in other places)” since the Tokugawa era. There is also data analysis in terms of the population’s history. The materials referred to for this study included the “Shumon-Aratame-cho” (religious faith surveys), from the Tokugawa era to the beginning of the Meiji era, and historical records related to the migrant work of the village.

During Tokugawa period labour migration has largely been treated by economic historians as an employment issue or, by historical demographers, as a form of population movement (which usually causes a population decline in the mother village). This paper clarifies the demographic movements and family circumstances behind the migration of labour, and the logic and historical characteristics of labour migration, based on case examples of the migrant workforce of the Kakudahama village in the Nishikanbara District, Niigata Prefecture. This migrant workforce was actively engaged in the so-called “Tasyokasegi (earnings in other places)” since the Tokugawa era. There is also data analysis in terms of the population’s history. The materials referred to for this study included the “Shumon-Aratame-cho” (religious faith surveys), from the Tokugawa era to the beginning of the Meiji era, and historical records related to the migrant work of the village.

Migration to the City: Analysis of the Birth Provinces of Kyoto Residents, 1843-1869

Mary Louise Nagata

The best individual level population data for the city of Kyoto is the religious faith surveys compiled annually by Kyoto neighborhoods. This study uses the records of 30 neighborhoods 1843-69 to investigate the birthplaces of Kyoto residents to gain new understanding of migration to the city. The surveys started recording the age and birth province of each individual in 1843 and were compiled annually until 1869, thus determining the data period. This study focuses on the evidence from the birth province listing to contrast Kyoto/Yamashiro province natives with non-natives in terms of mobility and various other measures to understand if migrants to the city differed from natives in terms of mobility, residence ownership, and various household and demographic factors such as marriage, post-marital residence, life-course service, business ownership, and household structure. Where did these immigrants fit in the society of the common residents of Kyoto?

The best individual level population data for the city of Kyoto is the religious faith surveys compiled annually by Kyoto neighborhoods. This study uses the records of 30 neighborhoods 1843-69 to investigate the birthplaces of Kyoto residents to gain new understanding of migration to the city. The surveys started recording the age and birth province of each individual in 1843 and were compiled annually until 1869, thus determining the data period. This study focuses on the evidence from the birth province listing to contrast Kyoto/Yamashiro province natives with non-natives in terms of mobility and various other measures to understand if migrants to the city differed from natives in terms of mobility, residence ownership, and various household and demographic factors such as marriage, post-marital residence, life-course service, business ownership, and household structure. Where did these immigrants fit in the society of the common residents of Kyoto?

Migrations in India : A Case study of H.E.H The Nizam

Swarupa Shankar

Migrations in India : A Case study of H.E.H The Nizam This study focuses on the nature, character and gender aspect of Migration in early 19th century onwards in the Nizam's dominion. It evaluates the forms / types of migration and analyses the migrant's problems and issues. The significant aspect of this study is that Migrations took place within the province, within the country and outside. In early modern period the reasons for migration were: poverty, unemployment, underdevelopment, failure of monsoons, availability of skilled labour. So different forms of migrations took place in this dominion which were both short term, long term and permanent. The migrations patterns were individual, group and community based which includes region, religion, caste and community. The first section of this paper discusses the characteristics of migrant and non- migrant households. The second section deals with the nature and forms of the migration process in rural...

Migrations in India : A Case study of H.E.H The Nizam This study focuses on the nature, character and gender aspect of Migration in early 19th century onwards in the Nizam's dominion. It evaluates the forms / types of migration and analyses the migrant's problems and issues. The significant aspect of this study is that Migrations took place within the province, within the country and outside. In early modern period the reasons for migration were: poverty, unemployment, underdevelopment, failure of monsoons, availability of skilled labour. So different forms of migrations took place in this dominion which were both short term, long term and permanent. The migrations patterns were individual, group and community based which includes region, religion, caste and community. The first section of this paper discusses the characteristics of migrant and non- migrant households. The second section deals with the nature and forms of the migration process in rural and urban areas. The third section brings out the migrant's working conditions, expenditure pattern (case studies will be discussed). The final section is the conclusion.

Railways and Migration in India: The Pattern and a of Migrations to Calcutta in the latter half of the Nineteenth Century

Ruquia Hussain

Railway construction in India in the latter half of the 19th century not only made travel quicker but gave impetus to internal migration, which reached a scale unimaginable before. People from many regions now were brought together giving a measure of substance to the concept of India as a unified country. The case of the range of migrations to Calcutta is taken up in the present study, the base being the 1901 census, where places of origin of individual inhabitants were recorded. By 1871, the main railway lines had been laid. These radiated inwards from Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. On an average one thousand kilometers of railway lines were opened every year between 1859-1909. The area served by these railways exceeded fifty percent of the entire area of the country by 1899, and seventy five percent of it by 1914.

Railway construction in India in the latter half of the 19th century not only made travel quicker but gave impetus to internal migration, which reached a scale unimaginable before. People from many regions now were brought together giving a measure of substance to the concept of India as a unified country. The case of the range of migrations to Calcutta is taken up in the present study, the base being the 1901 census, where places of origin of individual inhabitants were recorded. By 1871, the main railway lines had been laid. These radiated inwards from Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. On an average one thousand kilometers of railway lines were opened every year between 1859-1909. The area served by these railways exceeded fifty percent of the entire area of the country by 1899, and seventy five percent of it by 1914.

2nd half

Women and migration: settlement patterns of newcomers in preindustrial Turin and Piedmont (17th-19th centuries)

Beatrice Zucca Micheletto

This paper focuses on female international and domestic migration in preindustrial Piedmont. By analysing a range of Piedmontese and Turinese archival sources (population censuses, petitions for citizenship and petitions for economic privileges) this paper explores domestic and international migration patterns according to a gendered approach. Firstly, it investigates female migration patterns (whether chain network, family migration or temporary migration) and the role of women's paid and unpaid work as well as their property (was it used to organise the migration? Was it invested in the family business? Or for an independent activity?). Secondly, it will inquire into female resources and relationships exploited by women and by the members of their family in order to gain access to the urban resources (poor relief, public appointments, credit network) and achieve settlement. A special attention will be paid to the economic activity, to the marital status and to the life-cycle events of newcomers.

This paper focuses on female international and domestic migration in preindustrial Piedmont. By analysing a range of Piedmontese and Turinese archival sources (population censuses, petitions for citizenship and petitions for economic privileges) this paper explores domestic and international migration patterns according to a gendered approach. Firstly, it investigates female migration patterns (whether chain network, family migration or temporary migration) and the role of women's paid and unpaid work as well as their property (was it used to organise the migration? Was it invested in the family business? Or for an independent activity?). Secondly, it will inquire into female resources and relationships exploited by women and by the members of their family in order to gain access to the urban resources (poor relief, public appointments, credit network) and achieve settlement. A special attention will be paid to the economic activity, to the marital status and to the life-cycle events of newcomers.

Urban migration in Seventeenth-century Sweden

Martin Andersson

The Swedish seventeenth-century society was characterized by a very low degree of urbanization, compared to other early modern nations. This was mainly due to the complete lack of large cities. The small towns, on the other hand, were not very different from thousands of other premodern aggregations of trade and crafts. In this paper, I study the legal and economic framework that structured the migration to and from Swedish towns at the beginning of the seventeenth century. During a short period of time (ca. 1613–1618), almost all local and regional migration of the population of Sweden (including parts of present-day Russia and Finland) was recorded by the state for taxation purposes. The records surviving from this event contain more than 1,000 urban migration data on households and servants (both male and female). Through these data, I analyze fields of urban immigration and outmigration, migration distances, and town migration rates.

The Swedish seventeenth-century society was characterized by a very low degree of urbanization, compared to other early modern nations. This was mainly due to the complete lack of large cities. The small towns, on the other hand, were not very different from thousands of other premodern aggregations of trade and crafts. In this paper, I study the legal and economic framework that structured the migration to and from Swedish towns at the beginning of the seventeenth century. During a short period of time (ca. 1613–1618), almost all local and regional migration of the population of Sweden (including parts of present-day Russia and Finland) was recorded by the state for taxation purposes. The records surviving from this event contain more than 1,000 urban migration data on households and servants (both male and female). Through these data, I analyze fields of urban immigration and outmigration, migration distances, and town migration rates.

Internal migration in 16th-18th century Poland

Mateusz Wyżga

Preindustrial Poland was a country with a decidedly agrarian society and a firmly established feudal system dominated by the noble estate. The urbanization was characterized by about 1000 smaller towns serving as focal points around which local markets were organized. Research based on varied sources has shown that those markets generated strong internal migration processes. The developing mechanisms of short-distant movements were based on durable, multigenerational rural-urban migration networks, which made it possible to replenish urban populations. They also provided flows of reliable labor force. An analysis has made it possible to take into account the flows of individuals and families and to consider the role of women, the migrants’ attitudes, the staging of their migrations and the spatial distances covered, and above all the influence of the shuttle movements between the rural and urban areas generated by commerce, as well as the construction of social networks and migration chains.

Preindustrial Poland was a country with a decidedly agrarian society and a firmly established feudal system dominated by the noble estate. The urbanization was characterized by about 1000 smaller towns serving as focal points around which local markets were organized. Research based on varied sources has shown that those markets generated strong internal migration processes. The developing mechanisms of short-distant movements were based on durable, multigenerational rural-urban migration networks, which made it possible to replenish urban populations. They also provided flows of reliable labor force. An analysis has made it possible to take into account the flows of individuals and families and to consider the role of women, the migrants’ attitudes, the staging of their migrations and the spatial distances covered, and above all the influence of the shuttle movements between the rural and urban areas generated by commerce, as well as the construction of social networks and migration chains.

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