Proposal preview

Seaports and Development during the Global Ages in the South Atlantic, 1880-2010s

This session aims at describing and explaining the evolution of the seaports in the South Atlantic during the two waves of globalizations. The seaports become a major determinant of the rate of economic growth and the stage of economic development in the hinterland in these regions forming part of the called Global South. The papers presented deal with the evolution of port infrastructures, stakeholders and social structures which interacted on the development of their hinterlands and port-cities in the long run. The regions concerned –Africa, South America and the Caribbean) were characterized by extraverted economic structures where seaports played a center role as economic, political and social clusters. Most of countries in these regions were affected by Colonialism or post-Colonial relations with core industrial countries.

From an international scope and different methodological approaches, this session seeks for a holistic explanation on the driving factors of port evolution in historical perspective: economic, technological and institutional. Building on these parameters, we aim to explain how path dependence affected the evolution of ports and port systems and how these changes affected their hinterlands. On the other hand, this session aims to explore the way how ports placed in the Global South adapted their infrastructures to mainstream changes on the shipping industry and seaborne flows. From steam vessels to containerization, this session would provide a long-term explanation on the main driving factors which pushed port modernization in peripheral regions. Briefly, we set up a list of research questions for this session:

• How port and maritime façades evolves in the long-run at both sides of the South Atlantic?
• What have been the key driving factors of port modernization in these regions?
• How port activity influenced the economic and social development in the analyzed regions?
• What have been the different evolution stages of these ports?

Some answers to these questions would come from:

• Port activity analysis (throughput, connectivity, specialization).
• Stakeholders and Institution analysis (entrepreneurial strategies, investments and technological innovation-adaptation).
• Comparative analysis on port activity and economic performance (GDP and HDI from the regions concerned).
• Port system evolution: path dependence, self-reinforcement effects, agency and learning by doing effects.
• Emergence, resilience and lock-in processes.

Spatial Scope: South America, Caribbean, Atlantic Africa.
Chronologies: 1880-2010s (waves of Globalization)
Methodological approaches: History, Economics, Geography and Sociology.

Proposals from other seaports located in other “Global South” regions will be also considered by the organizers of the session.

Regarding to format and participation, we scheduled a 2/3 work sessions consisting of 15 minutes presentations (draft papers provided in advance), a 15 minutes prepared discussion and a final round of colloquium with the audience.

Organizer(s)

  • Daniel Castillo Hidalgo University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria daniel.castillohidalgo@ulpgc.es Spain
  • Miguel Suárez Bosa University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria miguel.suarezbosa@ulpgc.es Spain

Session members

  • Luis G. Cabrera Armas, University of La Laguna
  • Alejandro González Morales, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Luiz C. Ribeiro, University of Espirito Santo
  • Bruno Rohou, University of Bretagne-Sud
  • Germán Santana Pérez, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Miguel Suárez Bosa, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Leila Maziane, University Hassan II
  • Martin Petersen, University de Mar del Plata
  • Miguel de Marco, CONICET
  • Juan Manuel Santana Pérez, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
  • Catia Miriam Costa, Centre for International Studies- ISCTE-IUL
  • Maria Leticia Corrêa, University of Rio de Janeiro
  • Mônica De Sousa Nunes Martins, University of Rio de Janeiro
  • Francisco Soares, CITCEM - University of Porto
  • Xoan Carmona Badía, University of Santiago de Compostela
  • Luisa Muñoz Abeledo, University of Santiago de Compostela

Discussant(s)

  • Daniel Castillo Hidalgo University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria daniel.castillohidalgo@ulpgc.es

Papers

Panel abstract

This session aims at describing and explaining the evolution of the seaports in the South Atlantic during the two waves of globalizations. The seaports become a major determinant of the rate of economic growth and the stage of economic development in the hinterland in these regions forming part of the called Global South. The papers presented deal with the evolution of port infrastructures, stakeholders and social structures which interacted on the development of their hinterlands and port-cities in the long run. The regions concerned –Africa, South America and the Caribbean) were characterized by extraverted economic structures where seaports played a center role as economic, political and social clusters. Most of countries in these regions were affected by Colonialism or post-Colonial relations with core industrial countries.

1st half

Port development in unpredictable economic conditions: Multiple port projects in the Lagos Coastal region, Nigeria

Ayodeji Olukoju

This paper tackles the challenges of the multiple port projects in the Lagos Area in the uncertain economic conditions of the nation (even as the Lagos economy is rated the fifth largest in Africa). It locates the discussion in the following interlocking contexts. First, the trans-national context of the contest for hub port status in West Africa.Second, the national and sub-national contexts of inter-port competition, economic dynamics, public-private partnership (PPP) in the ports sector and delicate relations between the national and sub-national governments. It examines on the one hand, issues of funding, the prospects of inter-port competition and the potential challenges of intermodalism(the inefficient inland transport links for the old and new ports in Lagos). The paper highlights the potential of the ports as players in the quest for hub status in the Gulf of Guinea set against the rising profile of the Lagos megacity economy.

This paper tackles the challenges of the multiple port projects in the Lagos Area in the uncertain economic conditions of the nation (even as the Lagos economy is rated the fifth largest in Africa). It locates the discussion in the following interlocking contexts. First, the trans-national context of the contest for hub port status in West Africa.Second, the national and sub-national contexts of inter-port competition, economic dynamics, public-private partnership (PPP) in the ports sector and delicate relations between the national and sub-national governments. It examines on the one hand, issues of funding, the prospects of inter-port competition and the potential challenges of intermodalism(the inefficient inland transport links for the old and new ports in Lagos). The paper highlights the potential of the ports as players in the quest for hub status in the Gulf of Guinea set against the rising profile of the Lagos megacity economy.

Lobito: how the city built its intellectual life around the port

Cátia Miriam Costa and Francisco Soares

Lobito’s development as a city is directly connected with the construction of important infra-structures that transformed a little place into an international port city. The hypothesis we raise is that local periodical press was directly connected with the port activity and dynamism. Having this as a departure point, we are looking for some answers to these questions: how the port directly influenced the discussion of ideas and projects in the region? How intellectual and social atmosphere were transformed? How policy making and political environment was affected? We believe that analysing these titles of periodical press as an object of studywe will answer these questions, and contribute to study the impact of the port in the city of Lobito from a different perspective.

Lobito’s development as a city is directly connected with the construction of important infra-structures that transformed a little place into an international port city. The hypothesis we raise is that local periodical press was directly connected with the port activity and dynamism. Having this as a departure point, we are looking for some answers to these questions: how the port directly influenced the discussion of ideas and projects in the region? How intellectual and social atmosphere were transformed? How policy making and political environment was affected? We believe that analysing these titles of periodical press as an object of studywe will answer these questions, and contribute to study the impact of the port in the city of Lobito from a different perspective.

Island Ports of the Mid-Atlantic in transit from the Early Modern to the Contemporary History

Juan Manuel Santana Pérez

Books concerning the Atlantic Ocean during the Ancient Regime, present it as two coasts divided by a sort of desert. These studies have not considered the islands as an oasis in such a desert. We take this viewpoint in the present paper. Our research includes the archipelagos of the Middle Atlantic and not only the islands themselves, in a strict geographical sense. The cases of Madeira, the Canaries, Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, and the Guinea Islands of Bioko, Corisco and Annobon, and the entire Caribbean. There are certain common characteristics that have endured in these islands, by virtue of the fact that islands depend on centers of authority located at considerable distances. Their location on linking routes to three continents led to the first globalization since the world economic shifts of the sixteenth century. The ports were always a key element in the development of these island spaces.

Books concerning the Atlantic Ocean during the Ancient Regime, present it as two coasts divided by a sort of desert. These studies have not considered the islands as an oasis in such a desert. We take this viewpoint in the present paper. Our research includes the archipelagos of the Middle Atlantic and not only the islands themselves, in a strict geographical sense. The cases of Madeira, the Canaries, Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, and the Guinea Islands of Bioko, Corisco and Annobon, and the entire Caribbean. There are certain common characteristics that have endured in these islands, by virtue of the fact that islands depend on centers of authority located at considerable distances. Their location on linking routes to three continents led to the first globalization since the world economic shifts of the sixteenth century. The ports were always a key element in the development of these island spaces.

Science, technology and progress: the urban dimension of international exhibitions and the interventions in the port area of Rio de Janeiro from the turn of the 19th century to the 20th century

Maria Letícia Corrêa and Mônica de Sousa Nunes Martins

The historiography of international exhibitions held in the main European cities and, also, in the Americas since the middle of the 19th century has focused on the different dimensions of this phenomenon, with important contributions in the field of Economic History and in Cultural History. Following the suggestion of Nelson Sanjad (2017), we present, in this paper, an investigation on technological, scientific and urban planning aspects of great exhibitions, which implies an analysis of the interventions of public agents, especially architects and engineers, in planning urban construction and in the construction and assembly of infrastructure, aiming at the preparation of these major events.

The historiography of international exhibitions held in the main European cities and, also, in the Americas since the middle of the 19th century has focused on the different dimensions of this phenomenon, with important contributions in the field of Economic History and in Cultural History. Following the suggestion of Nelson Sanjad (2017), we present, in this paper, an investigation on technological, scientific and urban planning aspects of great exhibitions, which implies an analysis of the interventions of public agents, especially architects and engineers, in planning urban construction and in the construction and assembly of infrastructure, aiming at the preparation of these major events.

Wages, human capital and social inequality at the port of Dakar (Senegal), 1911-1936

Daniel Castillo Hidalgo

This paper deals with the wage´s structure and evolution of public workers (both European and African) paid by the colonial administration of the port of Dakar (Senegal) between 1911 and 1936. Since its construction from the second half of the 19th century, the port attracted an important amount of native workforce from the interior that was also encouraged by the concentration of investments promoted by the colonial rulers. On the other hand, the public administration that managed the port infrastructures employed an important volume of native workers (main d´œuvre) in a number of low-skilled positions (porters, sweepers, drivers, sailors, guardians, orderlies). Conversely, a very reduce number of African skilled workers (assistants, inspectors, accountants, foremen, lighthouse masters) and European officials (senior civil servants, engineers, accountants) and skilled workers (foremen, technical specialists) absorbed the most of budget devoted to staff expenditures.

This paper deals with the wage´s structure and evolution of public workers (both European and African) paid by the colonial administration of the port of Dakar (Senegal) between 1911 and 1936. Since its construction from the second half of the 19th century, the port attracted an important amount of native workforce from the interior that was also encouraged by the concentration of investments promoted by the colonial rulers. On the other hand, the public administration that managed the port infrastructures employed an important volume of native workers (main d´œuvre) in a number of low-skilled positions (porters, sweepers, drivers, sailors, guardians, orderlies). Conversely, a very reduce number of African skilled workers (assistants, inspectors, accountants, foremen, lighthouse masters) and European officials (senior civil servants, engineers, accountants) and skilled workers (foremen, technical specialists) absorbed the most of budget devoted to staff expenditures.

2nd half

Ports and Cruises in Islands of north mid-atlantic (Caribbean and Macaronesia)

Antonio Ramón Ojeda and Alejandro González Morales

This work makes an approximation to cruise tourism in the North Mid-Atlantic. We study the characteristics of the ports, routes and destinations of the Caribbean and Macaronesia, building on a comparative and individual analysis of each area. This paper analyses the number of cruises, their frequency, seasonality and duration, the main routes, the most visited resources and, also, the characteristics of the ports, from which a typological proposal is carried out. Some similarities have been observed between both spaces, but above all, there are differences, both quantitative and qualitative. We are witnessing a transformation of the cruise tourism model that is the result of the growth of this segment, which is giving rise to new ways of using the territory and its resources. Ports are now being transformed quickly due to infrastructure investments, but their location is less decisive in the design of routes.

This work makes an approximation to cruise tourism in the North Mid-Atlantic. We study the characteristics of the ports, routes and destinations of the Caribbean and Macaronesia, building on a comparative and individual analysis of each area. This paper analyses the number of cruises, their frequency, seasonality and duration, the main routes, the most visited resources and, also, the characteristics of the ports, from which a typological proposal is carried out. Some similarities have been observed between both spaces, but above all, there are differences, both quantitative and qualitative. We are witnessing a transformation of the cruise tourism model that is the result of the growth of this segment, which is giving rise to new ways of using the territory and its resources. Ports are now being transformed quickly due to infrastructure investments, but their location is less decisive in the design of routes.

Port infrastructures and development in the North of Morocco. The paradigm of Tangier

Miguel Suárez Bosa and Luis G. Cabrera Armas

The provision of economic, maritime and terrestrial infrastructures in the areas of European dominance in Morocco during the Protectorate was defined by strategic and economic reasons: territorial control, exports of raw materials, commercial exchanges, and the increase of competitiveness of the port’s offer in the Atlantic maritime traffic. This communication analyses the development of these infrastructures, especially maritime and rail infrastructures. In particular, we analyse the case of the city of Tangier, which, with international administration status, became one of the economic centres with the highest commercial and financial activity, as well as a major port on the North African coast. Its integration into the routes of the Atlantic commercial navigation was favoured by its strategic location, the development of a railway network that connected the city to the inland (the region of Fez and the Rif mines), as well as the construction of small ports (Larache, Tetuán or Ceuta),...

The provision of economic, maritime and terrestrial infrastructures in the areas of European dominance in Morocco during the Protectorate was defined by strategic and economic reasons: territorial control, exports of raw materials, commercial exchanges, and the increase of competitiveness of the port’s offer in the Atlantic maritime traffic. This communication analyses the development of these infrastructures, especially maritime and rail infrastructures. In particular, we analyse the case of the city of Tangier, which, with international administration status, became one of the economic centres with the highest commercial and financial activity, as well as a major port on the North African coast. Its integration into the routes of the Atlantic commercial navigation was favoured by its strategic location, the development of a railway network that connected the city to the inland (the region of Fez and the Rif mines), as well as the construction of small ports (Larache, Tetuán or Ceuta), which increased its role as economic and financial centre.

Seaports and corsair activity in the mid-Atlantic: Salé and the Canary Islands, 1648-1767

Leila Maziane and Germán Santana Pérez

Salé's classic corsarism had spent most of its Golden Age before the mid-seventeenth century. In 1666 the Alawis take Rabat. In the same way, the great attacks of Berber invasion to the Canary Islands had happened before 1650, affecting especially Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. The same goes for the great attacks of European corsairs in the sixteenth century. However, a silver age of corsarism was developed at a regional scale from the mid 17th century. This profitable activity impacted on the evolution of the main regional ports and the harassed seaborne flows. Thus, corsairs continued affecting the mercantile activity and, therefore, they conditioned the historical path of regional port development. Last, this paper shows how this activity affected the both sides of the border, generating a truly international market of stolen goods.

Salé's classic corsarism had spent most of its Golden Age before the mid-seventeenth century. In 1666 the Alawis take Rabat. In the same way, the great attacks of Berber invasion to the Canary Islands had happened before 1650, affecting especially Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. The same goes for the great attacks of European corsairs in the sixteenth century. However, a silver age of corsarism was developed at a regional scale from the mid 17th century. This profitable activity impacted on the evolution of the main regional ports and the harassed seaborne flows. Thus, corsairs continued affecting the mercantile activity and, therefore, they conditioned the historical path of regional port development. Last, this paper shows how this activity affected the both sides of the border, generating a truly international market of stolen goods.

Seaborne flows and port evolution in the West African Atlantic Islands: 1850-1940

Luis G. Cabrera Armas and Miguel Suárez Bosa

The Islands of Madeira, Canary and the Cape Verde have played a key role on the evolution of modern shipping activity in West Africa. These ports used to be stopover places from the 1850 decade and namely during the 1870s due to the increased maritime flows (both passengers and cargo) between Europe and the overseas peripheries. Thus, the Islands contributed to the overall reduction of transport and transaction costs. Hence, the islands ports and their stakeholders (port communities) profited their location rent and they showed an impressive adaptation capability. In addition, they were able to adapt to changes on the features and organization of international maritime flows, energetic models and the increased port competitiveness. This paper examines the attraction and expulsion factors which explained the movements on the regional hierarchy and the way how seaborne traffic evolved through an analysis of the public and private stakeholders on the supply of...

The Islands of Madeira, Canary and the Cape Verde have played a key role on the evolution of modern shipping activity in West Africa. These ports used to be stopover places from the 1850 decade and namely during the 1870s due to the increased maritime flows (both passengers and cargo) between Europe and the overseas peripheries. Thus, the Islands contributed to the overall reduction of transport and transaction costs. Hence, the islands ports and their stakeholders (port communities) profited their location rent and they showed an impressive adaptation capability. In addition, they were able to adapt to changes on the features and organization of international maritime flows, energetic models and the increased port competitiveness. This paper examines the attraction and expulsion factors which explained the movements on the regional hierarchy and the way how seaborne traffic evolved through an analysis of the public and private stakeholders on the supply of port infrastructures and logistical services for the global shipping companies between 1850 and 1940.

The DeutschesKohlen-Depot in Spanish ports during the early years of the twentieth century: Business and Political Strategies

Xoan Carmona Badía and Luisa Muñoz Abeledo

The DeutschesKohlen-Depot (DKD) was a business association made up by two powerful cartels, the Rheinisch-WestfalischesKohlen-Syndicat and the one shaped with the main German shipping firms. The DKD main goal was to supply coal to the German military and civilian fleet in different ports around the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In Spain it counted with facilities in Vigo, Cartagena, Barcelona and others, taking advantage of the tariff exemptions available for coal floating depots whereas in Las Palmas and Tenerife benefited from the Free Port regime that was in force for the Canary Islands. The objective of this paper is to analyze the presence of the DKD in Spain as well as the characteristics of the contracts that this German company established with its Spanish partners, in which counting on loyalty and stability from its associates was more important than maximizing benefits.

The DeutschesKohlen-Depot (DKD) was a business association made up by two powerful cartels, the Rheinisch-WestfalischesKohlen-Syndicat and the one shaped with the main German shipping firms. The DKD main goal was to supply coal to the German military and civilian fleet in different ports around the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In Spain it counted with facilities in Vigo, Cartagena, Barcelona and others, taking advantage of the tariff exemptions available for coal floating depots whereas in Las Palmas and Tenerife benefited from the Free Port regime that was in force for the Canary Islands. The objective of this paper is to analyze the presence of the DKD in Spain as well as the characteristics of the contracts that this German company established with its Spanish partners, in which counting on loyalty and stability from its associates was more important than maximizing benefits.