Proposal preview

The Impact of Globalization on the Rise of Mass Schooling

Has globalization on net promoted or impeded the rise of mass schooling throughout the world?
Insofar as globalization has promoted economic opportunity and has been associated with forces of modernization, one would expect its impact on popular education to have been positive. However, insofar as globalization has been associated with economic divergence and with unequal socio-economic power structures, its educational influences may have been adverse.

This session would build on two previous WEHC sessions, one at the 2012 Stellenbosch WEHC on “Financing the Rise of Popular Schooling in the Developed and Developing Worlds” and one at the 2015 Kyoto WEHC on “Diverse Routes to Schooling for All.” These two previous sessions gave attention to barriers and impediments to schooling as well as to positive factors at work. In keeping with the theme for the 2018 Congress, the proposed session will focus on global forces at work in promoting as well as possibly impeding the rise of mass schooling.

The global influences to be considered in the session include those arising from core or imperial agency in influencing the spread of schooling in periphery regions. Such agency includes direct colonial rule and those of religious missionaries. The role of labor migration will also be considered; both immigration and emigration can influence both origin and destination demand for schooling.

Another contrast affected by global forces is between centralized versus decentralized policies in facilitating universal access to schooling. Processes of modernization associated with globalization can be seen as influencing top-down, centralized campaigns to promote universal schooling. Today, the Millennialand Sustainable Development Goals aim to strengthen education across the world. While most policies are implemented at the national level, global forces strongly shape the response of each school system to the incentive provided by public intervention. Much has been made in recent literature of the impact of land-ownership distribution on school provision. Globalization has almost surely been associated with changes in land-ownership distribution in the old and new worlds with direction of causation proceeding in both directions which in turn has likely had implications for local public school finance.

This session will bring together scholars working on the global dimensions of the political economy and institutions that made the adoption of modern education during the nineteenth and twentieth century proceed at such varied paces both across the developed and the developing worlds. It will include scholars who participated in the previous two WEHC sessions on the rise of popular schooling as well as others.

The proposed session aims at broad geographical coverage, including studies of North and South America, Eurasia, and Africa. It also aims at broad chronological coverage including the early modern and modern periods through the twentieth century.

Organizer(s)

  • David Mitch University of Maryland, Baltimore County mitch@umbc.edu U.S.A.
  • Gabriele Cappelli Universitat Autonoma de Barclona Gabriele.cappelli@eui.edu Spain and Italy
  • Sun Go Chung-Ang University sungo@cau.ac.kr South Korea

Session members

  • Pei Gao, New York University Shanghai
  • Bruno Witzel, University of Gottingen
  • Bogdan Murgescu, University of Bucharest
  • Matei Gheboianu, University of Bucharest
  • Andrei F. Sora, University of Bucharest
  • Melanie Meng Xue, Northwestern University
  • Yu Hao, Peking University
  • Rinchan A. Mirza, University of Namur

Discussant(s)

  • Latika Chaudary Hartmann Naval Postgraduate School lhartman@nps.edu

Papers

Panel abstract

Has globalization on net promoted or impeded the rise of mass schooling throughout the world? Insofar as globalization has promoted economic opportunity and has been associated with forces of modernization, one would expect its impact on popular education to have been positive. However, insofar as globalization has been associated with economic divergence and with unequal socio-economic power structures, its educational influences may have been adverse. The global influences to be considered in the session include the role of labor migration; both immigration and emigration can influence both origin and destination demand for schooling. Consideration will also be given to processes of modernization associated with globalization as influencing top-down, centralized campaigns to promote mass education to overcome impediments from reliance solely on local efforts.

1st half

Immigration and the path dependence of education: the case of German-speakers in Sao Paulo, Brazil (1840-1920).

Bruno Gabriel Witzel de Souza

This article studies the path dependence of human capital accumulation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It focuses on the impacts of German‐speaking immigrants on education through three channels: their share of the population in the nineteenth century, their on‐the‐job skills, and the schools they founded. Using a new dataset based on almanacs from 1873 and 1888, these effects are evaluated for the nineteenth, early twentieth, and early twenty‐first centuries. The article shows that the institutionalized demand for education of these immigrants, reflected by the establishment of schools, was their main contribution to the accumulation of human capital. The effect of German schools on educational levels required a period to mature and dissipated over time. Nevertheless, its influence was substantial at the beginning of the twentieth century, affecting enrolment levels in private and state schools, a result that suggests the existence of spillover and contagion effects. Moreover, current indicators...

This article studies the path dependence of human capital accumulation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It focuses on the impacts of German‐speaking immigrants on education through three channels: their share of the population in the nineteenth century, their on‐the‐job skills, and the schools they founded. Using a new dataset based on almanacs from 1873 and 1888, these effects are evaluated for the nineteenth, early twentieth, and early twenty‐first centuries. The article shows that the institutionalized demand for education of these immigrants, reflected by the establishment of schools, was their main contribution to the accumulation of human capital. The effect of German schools on educational levels required a period to mature and dissipated over time. Nevertheless, its influence was substantial at the beginning of the twentieth century, affecting enrolment levels in private and state schools, a result that suggests the existence of spillover and contagion effects. Moreover, current indicators for stocks and flows of human capital in São Paulo are strongly associated with their historical levels. At the same time, this path dependence is conditional on the type of school: while a positive persistence is found for the private system throughout the twentieth century, convergence occurred in state schools.

Population Exchange and Development: Evidence from Pakistan through Partition.

Rinchan Ali Mirza

The partition of British India in 1947 into India and Pakistan resulted in one of the largest population transfers in human history. Using data on refugee presence as a proxy for the intensity of population exchange in Pakistan, and district level data on literacy and urbanization between 1891 and 2009, I find that areas where the partition-induced population exchange was more intense have experienced faster growth in urbanization and have seen greater improvements in literacy in the long-run. Using pre-partition data, I show that the placement of migrants is uncorrelated with trends in literacy, urbanization and public infrastructure prior to 1947; thus providing evidence that the observed effects are not solely explained by migrants self-selecting into districts that were pre-disposed to greater economic development. I provide evidence that the long-run impact of population exchange is attributable to the permanent change it induced in the religious diversity of districts across Pakistan.

The partition of British India in 1947 into India and Pakistan resulted in one of the largest population transfers in human history. Using data on refugee presence as a proxy for the intensity of population exchange in Pakistan, and district level data on literacy and urbanization between 1891 and 2009, I find that areas where the partition-induced population exchange was more intense have experienced faster growth in urbanization and have seen greater improvements in literacy in the long-run. Using pre-partition data, I show that the placement of migrants is uncorrelated with trends in literacy, urbanization and public infrastructure prior to 1947; thus providing evidence that the observed effects are not solely explained by migrants self-selecting into districts that were pre-disposed to greater economic development. I provide evidence that the long-run impact of population exchange is attributable to the permanent change it induced in the religious diversity of districts across Pakistan.

Immigration and Pubic Education in the mid-19th century U.S.A.

Sun Go

Did the influx of immigrants help the early development of public education in the USA? Or did it hinder the expansion of universal public schooling? This old question is reexamined in scrutiny using a combination of the county-level statistics and complete count population data from the 1850 census. The empirical result reveals that the dense presence of immigrants affected the supply of and demand for public elementary education differently. The relative size of the immigrant population had a negligible effect on the supply of common school education. On the other hand, the individual demand for public education was positively associated with the local density of the immigrant population. The positive impact of immigrants on individual demand for common schooling at the county level was found for most countries of the origin at different magnitudes

Did the influx of immigrants help the early development of public education in the USA? Or did it hinder the expansion of universal public schooling? This old question is reexamined in scrutiny using a combination of the county-level statistics and complete count population data from the 1850 census. The empirical result reveals that the dense presence of immigrants affected the supply of and demand for public elementary education differently. The relative size of the immigrant population had a negligible effect on the supply of common school education. On the other hand, the individual demand for public education was positively associated with the local density of the immigrant population. The positive impact of immigrants on individual demand for common schooling at the county level was found for most countries of the origin at different magnitudes

The Short- and Long-Run Effects of Affirmative Action: Evidence From Imperial China

Yu Hao & Melanie Meng Xue

This paper examines the effects of "affirmative action” policies on human capital accumulation, social mobility and regional inequalities. Qing China used an examination system to select government officials. We examine a policy reform in 1712 which allowed individuals from disadvantaged provinces to pass the exam with a lower score. At the province level, in the short run, underdeveloped provinces saw more successful candidates. This trend continued into the long run, suggesting that the reform led to more than performance inflation. At the prefecture level, we find that the gains were mostly concentrated in the very few prefectures that were the most developed before the reform, whereas the losses were disproportionately born by underdeveloped prefectures within the more developed provinces. We propose several possible mechanisms responsible for the widening gap in performance within provinces. In addition, we examine the role of social organizations such as clans and funding agencies in reinforcing...

This paper examines the effects of "affirmative action” policies on human capital accumulation, social mobility and regional inequalities. Qing China used an examination system to select government officials. We examine a policy reform in 1712 which allowed individuals from disadvantaged provinces to pass the exam with a lower score. At the province level, in the short run, underdeveloped provinces saw more successful candidates. This trend continued into the long run, suggesting that the reform led to more than performance inflation. At the prefecture level, we find that the gains were mostly concentrated in the very few prefectures that were the most developed before the reform, whereas the losses were disproportionately born by underdeveloped prefectures within the more developed provinces. We propose several possible mechanisms responsible for the widening gap in performance within provinces. In addition, we examine the role of social organizations such as clans and funding agencies in reinforcing the performance gap.

Local Elites and Public Education Provision: Evidence from 20th century China

Pei Gao

Using the historical path to public education in China, this paper studies how elites facilitate the provision of local public goods. At the turn of the 20th century, the long-lasting Confucian education system was replaced by a Western-inspired one, which was also the beginning of the public education in China. Using the variation in the density of lowest degree holders (a proxy for local elites) across counties, we find that more traditional elites were associated with significantly more public primary education provision under the new education system. Secondly, this effect is stronger in counties where suffered a higher level of political instability. This result is most consistent with the interpretation that when formal institutions failed, informal governance imposed by the local elites assumed more administrative responsibilities in delivering public goods. The local elites supported public education system to preserve their social status.

Using the historical path to public education in China, this paper studies how elites facilitate the provision of local public goods. At the turn of the 20th century, the long-lasting Confucian education system was replaced by a Western-inspired one, which was also the beginning of the public education in China. Using the variation in the density of lowest degree holders (a proxy for local elites) across counties, we find that more traditional elites were associated with significantly more public primary education provision under the new education system. Secondly, this effect is stronger in counties where suffered a higher level of political instability. This result is most consistent with the interpretation that when formal institutions failed, informal governance imposed by the local elites assumed more administrative responsibilities in delivering public goods. The local elites supported public education system to preserve their social status.

2nd half

The Rise of Mass Education and Its Implications on Labor Inputs in European Socialist Systems during the Postwar Era

Bogdan Murgescu, Matei Gheboianu, Andrei Florin Sora

One of the major aims of the communist rulers of Central and Eastern Europe was to steer their countries towards a status of industrially developed societies through bureaucratic coordination. Therefore, all major inputs had to be carefully planned, including education and labor force. This paper will outline the expansion of mass education, charting both the similarities and the differences between the various socialist countries, which started at the end of World War II with very different levels of educational attainment. The expansion of mass education, especially of secondary education, will be linked to the expansion of labor force. The paper will explore also the mix of incentives used in order to steer the graduates towards various enterprises and economic branches, and contribute thus to the more general debate about the complex relationship between bureaucratic coordination, market coordination, family coordination and individual agency in socialist systems.

One of the major aims of the communist rulers of Central and Eastern Europe was to steer their countries towards a status of industrially developed societies through bureaucratic coordination. Therefore, all major inputs had to be carefully planned, including education and labor force. This paper will outline the expansion of mass education, charting both the similarities and the differences between the various socialist countries, which started at the end of World War II with very different levels of educational attainment. The expansion of mass education, especially of secondary education, will be linked to the expansion of labor force. The paper will explore also the mix of incentives used in order to steer the graduates towards various enterprises and economic branches, and contribute thus to the more general debate about the complex relationship between bureaucratic coordination, market coordination, family coordination and individual agency in socialist systems.

Divergent paths to Mass Schooling at Europe's poles? Italy and Sweden, 1840-1900

Gabriele Cappelli and Johannes Westberg

This paper presents the first harmonized data on the diffusion of primary schooling across historical Swedish counties and Italian provinces in the late-19th century – i.e. both at approximately today’s NUTS-3 level. We present and discuss brand-new and revised data on regional inequality in gross enrolment ratios, school-age children per teacher and expenditure per school-age child. We discuss our findings in the light of Sweden’s and Italy’s 19th-century national school acts, as well as differences in socio-economic factors and institutions. Further, we analyse qualitative information based on Italy’s state inquiries and Swedish school-district minutes to improve our understanding of the factors that prompted different regional routes to mass schooling in the two countries towards the 20th century.

This paper presents the first harmonized data on the diffusion of primary schooling across historical Swedish counties and Italian provinces in the late-19th century – i.e. both at approximately today’s NUTS-3 level. We present and discuss brand-new and revised data on regional inequality in gross enrolment ratios, school-age children per teacher and expenditure per school-age child. We discuss our findings in the light of Sweden’s and Italy’s 19th-century national school acts, as well as differences in socio-economic factors and institutions. Further, we analyse qualitative information based on Italy’s state inquiries and Swedish school-district minutes to improve our understanding of the factors that prompted different regional routes to mass schooling in the two countries towards the 20th century.

Modernization, Religion and the Drive for Universal Literacy in Iran’s White Revolution.

David Mitch

A key component of the White Revolution’s modernization drive of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was the push for first compulsory schooling in the 1940s and then a literacy corp termed “Army of Knowledge” in the 1960s. These efforts secured dramatic improvements in quantitative measures of elementary schooling participation and basic literacy. However they also generated substantial resistance by traditional religious groups. This study explores the conflicts in ideology associated with the response to the White Revolution’s educational efforts and its consequences for educational outcomes in post-Pahlavi Iran.

A key component of the White Revolution’s modernization drive of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was the push for first compulsory schooling in the 1940s and then a literacy corp termed “Army of Knowledge” in the 1960s. These efforts secured dramatic improvements in quantitative measures of elementary schooling participation and basic literacy. However they also generated substantial resistance by traditional religious groups. This study explores the conflicts in ideology associated with the response to the White Revolution’s educational efforts and its consequences for educational outcomes in post-Pahlavi Iran.

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